Audio features

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Low level Features

MPEG-7 descriptors

MPEG-7 audio low level descriptors

TU Berlin's online analyzer

  • AudioWaveformType
  • AudioPowerType
  • AudioSpectrumEnvelopeType
  • AudioSpectrumCentroidType
  • AudioSpectrumSpreadType
  • AudioSpectrumFlatnessType
  • AudioSpectrumBasisType
  • AudioSpectrumProjectionType
  • AudioHarmonicityType
  • AudioFundamentalFrequencyType
  • LogAttackTimeType
  • TemporalCentroidType
  • SpectralCentroidType
  • HarmonicSpectralCentroidType
  • HarmonicSpectralDeviationType
  • HarmonicSpectralSpreadType
  • HarmonicSpectralVariationType

Cepstral Features

  • Mel-Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCC), k = 2:13

Spectral Features

  • Slope
  • Roll-Off
  • Centroid
  • Spread
  • Skew
  • Kurtosis
  • Odd-to-Even Harmonic Energy Ratio (OER)
  • Tristimulus

LibXtract features

LibXtract is a simple, portable, lightweight library of audio feature extraction functions developed by Jamie Bullock.

Feature name
Mean of a vector
Kurtosis of a vector
Spectral mean
Mean of a spectrum
Spectral kurtosis
Kurtosis of a spectrum
Spectral centroid
Centroid of a spectrum
Irregularity (2 types)
Irregularity of a spectrum
Tristimulus (3 types)
Tristimulus of a spectrum
Smoothness of a spectrum
Spread of a spectrum
Zero Crossing Rate
Zero crossing rate of a vector
Loudness of a signal
Inharmonicity of a spectrum
Fundamental frequency of a signal
Autocorrelation vector of a signal
Bark Coefficients
Bark coefficients from a spectrum
Peak Spectrum
Spectral peaks from a spectrum
MFCC from a spectrum

Musical sound features

  • onsets
  • pulses
  • cyclical patterns
  • accents and articulations
  • dynamic contours
  • pitch contours
  • tessitura contours
  • timbral contours
  • modulations
  • ornaments

Higher level features

List from Collins 2009:

  • onset detection
  • pitch detection (monophonic)
  • melody extraction
  • pitch detection (polyphonic)
  • key and chord recognition
  • beat tracking and rhythm extraction
  • instrument recognition

Perceptual features

  • Roughness
  • Sharpness
  • Loudness
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